by N. Mokhtar, M.A Herriman, J.Ramli, T. Duka et al


A good understanding of the current coastal and island environment of Terengganu is essential for policy-makers to develop and implement worthwhile strategies for sustainable development of tourism that is within the carrying capacity of tourist resources.

The Terengganu Coastal and Island Study (TCIS) commissioned by the State Economic Planning Unit through the Terengganu Development Institute (TDI) in 2005- 2006 had produced a comprehensive assessment of the state of the environment of the coastal zone and the islands, namely the Perhentian and Redang islands. The outcome of the study also recognizes that the tourism industry has the greatest potential as an economic engine for Terengganu as it builds on existing competitive advantages derived from a unique natural environment, richly endowed with flora and fauna of highest biodiversity and ancient heritage.

Setiu Lagoon for example, is recognized as a unique ecosystem of enormous potential as an eco-leisure tourism attraction. Critical issues such as inappropriate management and disposal of solid waste, inadequate and poorly maintained tourist infrastructure, lack of medical services, endangered coastal forests and marine environment pollution due to unfriendly aquaculture practices are crucial.

The Drive-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) model was employed to assess each of the critical issues. Among the responses include the development of marine tourism strategy to maximize tourism revenue through coastal–related tourism products with upgrading of coastal routes and facilities with attractive accommodations and family attractions, improve employment opportunities as well as optimizing and privatization of island management based on Tourism Optimization Management Model (TOMM) indicators and targets in order to meet objectives of environment, economic, social-cultural, market, aesthetics and spiritual values. Integrated Coastal Use Zonation Plan (ICUZP), offshore aquaculture, sea farming or spot fishing, coordinated planning of wetland and rehabilitation of Setiu Lagoon towards an eco-edu-heritage tourism of Besut and Setiu Districts were also recommended.

Keywords: Marine Eco-Tourism, sustainable, planning, development, management, coastal, islands, biodiversity, carrying capacity, tourism optimization model.


________________________________________________________________________ * ISI Ventures Sdn, Bhd, Institute Sultan Iskandar, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

** Sea Resources Management Sdn Bhd

*** Kangaroo Island Management, South Australia,

**** TDI, UMT, UM, UKM, UTM, MIMA, UPM and Fanli Marine Env. Consultancy Services Sdn Bhd


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Department of Hydraulics & Hydrology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University Technology Malaysia (UTM)


Deputy Executive Director, Institute Sultan Iskandar (ISI)


CEO, ISI Ventures Sdn Bhd c/o: Institute Sultan Iskandar Universiti Teknologi Malaysia City Campus, Jalan Semarak 54100 Kuala Lumpur


Phone : 6012- 3905953 (mobile)

Off tel: 603-26989870 Fax: 603-26940293

Email :,



PhD : Physics –Laser Technology(UTM),

MSc : Physics-Ionisation (Univ. Coll. of Swansea Wales, UK)

BSc  : Physics (State University of New York, Binghamton, NY, USA)



R & D, Management of Technology, Technopreneurship, Intellectual Property & Commercialisation Management, Technology Transfer, Incubator &Technology Park Management, Technology Evaluation (Engineering, Science, Biotech, ICT), Strategic Planning & R & D Organisation Management



Lasers, Bio-Medical applications, coastal engineering, Marine Science, Environmental studies, construction, fluid flows, physical modeling.


Professional Memberships

1. Member of International Association of Hydraulic Research (IAHR)

2. Member of Society for Optical Engineering (SPIEE), USA

3. Member of International Erosion Control Association (IECA)

4. Council Member for Malaysian Society for Marine Science (MSMS), VP

5. Exco Member, Confederation of Science and Technology Associations,  Malaysia, COSTAM


Awards / Recognition

      1) Gold Medal at the 27th International Inventions Exhibitions, New    Techniques and New Products, Geneva, Switzerland for the Construction/Civil Engineering category (1999)

5.   2) Gold Medal,  World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO),Geneva, Switzerland, for Best Woman Inventor

6.    3) UTM’s Discovery Gold Medal Award in 1999 awarded by YAB Tun  Dr.Mahathir Mohamad, Former PM of Malaysia

4.   4) 3rd Prize, 13th Khwarizmi International Award from Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), award given by President of Iran, Muhamad Khatami.

5.   5) National Inventors Award for 1999 awarded by Dato’ Seri Abdullah Hj. Ahmad Badawi  organised by the Ministry of Science, Technology & the Environment (MOSTE)

6.   6) Special Award “R & D Manufacturing Category” R & D IPTA Expo’05. Min. of Higher Education

7.   7) National IP Award, Best Industrial Design, April 2007, MDTCA/MyIPO, PM


Session 1


Sustainable Development and Management:

sharing the expertise of practitioners in discussing the challenges and advocating sustainability in tourism development, marine environment protection and alleviating the impact of coastal and maritime activities.



Session 3


Succeeding in Marine Ecotourism: featuring proponents of marine ecotourism and initiatives undertaken by both private and public sector and addressing the widespread "green washing" practices that is harming the industry.






Session 2


Policies in Sustainable Tourism: Emphasis on capacity building as the way forward in environment awareness, education and interpretation of marine ecotourism among stakeholders and tourists and a call for national and international collaboration in addressing marine environmental issues.



Session 4



Conservation of Marine Resources: Presenting two successful marine conservation programmes - turtle terrapin rehabilitation programme in Setiu and coral reef protection programme in Sipadan and learning valuable lessons in helping to protect resources for ecotourism activities.








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